LearnTest 1Test 2Test 3ALL WORDS

      is`sue
      'iʃu:
      n[C] a subject or topic that people discuss or argue about ¶ a problem or worry that sb has with sth ¶ one of a regular series of magazines or newspapers ¶ set of things for sale
      n[s] the act of officially giving people sth
      v[T] announce ¶ officially make things available for people to use or buy
      -
      Abortion is a highly controversial issue.
      We really need to focus on this one issue and not get sidetracked.
      She spoke on the issue of private health care.
      Oh, I was kind of hoping that wouldn't be an issue.
      Money is not an issue.
      All the people in the study had low self-esteem and had issues with their bodies.
      Have you seen the latest issue?
      Buy municipal bonds in the new-issue market.
      They issued a joint statement denying the charges.
      The US State department issues millions of passports each year.
      The Royal Mail issued a special set of stamps to mark the occasion.
      She died without issue (children of her own).
      =
      giv`en
      'givən
      adj specified, stated, or arranged ¶ be ~ to - tend to
      prep considering
      n[C] a basic fact that you accept as the truth
      -
      In chess there are typically about 36 legal moves from any given board position.
      The bomb could go off at any given time and in any given place.
      The wrapping machine was pre-set to wrap a given number of biscuits.
      Candidates will have to give a presentation on a given topic.
      Given his age, he's a remarkably fast runner.
      Given the circumstances, he's done really well.
      You can take it as a given that there will be champagne at the wedding.
      I'm given to going for long walks on my own.
      Her given name (first name) is Monica and her surname is Geller.
      =
      re`pub`li`can
      ri'pʌblikən
      n[C] sb who believes in government by elected representatives only, without monarch ¶ a member or supporter of the ~ Party in the US
      also an adjective
      -
      In republican systems of government, power is held by the people or the representatives that they elect.
      The Republican Party is one of the two main political parties in the United States. It is more right-wing or conservative than the Democratic Party.
      In the 1960s tax cuts were being pushed by the Democrats in the Kennedy-Johnson Administration. Unlike today, where Republicans were urging tax cuts and Democrats opposing them, in those days it was the Democrats pushing the tax cuts and Republicans opposing them.
      =
      low`er
      'ləuə
      adj ≠upper ¶ ≠higher
      v[IT] reduce ¶ move down
      -
      Helen blushed and hastily lowered her eyes.
      Her lower lip trembled as if she was about to cry.
      She bit her lower lip.
      Lower case letters are small letters, not capital or upper case letters.
      Interest rates have been lowered again.
      Do you think we should lower the price?
      A poor diet lowers one's resistance to illness.
      Some food can lower the blood pressure.
      I wouldn't lower myself to speak to her after what she's done.
      Helen carefully lowered the sleeping child onto the bed.
      She lowered her voice as if they might be overheard.
      Every evening at sunset the flag was lowered.
      Some people use the lower class or the lower classes to refer to the division of society that they consider to have the lowest social status.
      =
      con`gress
      'kɔŋgres
      n[UCs] a formal meeting where representatives from different groups discuss ideas, make decisions, etc ¶ the group of people chosen or elected to make the laws in the US etc ¶ used in the names of political parties
      -
      Congress has rejected the recent presidential proposal on firearms.
      The President has lost the support of Congress again.
      His resignation came on the final day of the party congress.
      A Congresswoman is a woman member of Congress in the US, especially the House of Representatives.
      She's been an effective member of Congress and a close ally of the President.
      The Trades Union Congress in Britain is the same as the TUC.
      =
      at`tend`ance
      ə'tendəns
      n[UC] the number/act of people present at a game, concert, meeting etc
      -
      Attendances at church are falling.
      Ross's lecture series was canceled because of poor attendance.
      He was expecting a large attendance at the meeting.
      We have an average attendance of 10,000 fans per game.
      Most courses involve an average of ten hours attendance at college each week.
      If someone is in attendance at a place or an event, they are there.
      Over 5,000 people were in attendance at yesterday's demonstration.
      =
      com`pute
      kəm'pju:t
      v[IT] calculate ¶ make sense
      -
      Try to compute efficiently and quickly in your head.
      Scientists are trying to compute the probable course of the missile.
      Final results had not yet been computed.
      But something about this simplicity doesn't compute. Reality can't be that simple.
      =
      dem`o`crat
      'deməkræt
      n[C] sb who believes in or supports democracy ¶ a member or supporter of the ~ Party of the US
      -
      The Democratic Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the younger Republican Party.
      This comparison examines the differences between the policies and political positions of the Democratic and Republican parties on major issues such as taxes, the role of government, entitlements (Social Security, Medicare), gun control, immigration, healthcare, abortion and gay rights.
      Franklin Roosevelt, John F. Kennedy, Bill Clinton, Woodrow Wilson, Jimmy Carter, Barack Obama are Democrats.
      =
      mov`ing
      'mu:viŋ
      adj making you feel emotional ¶ changing from one position to another
      -
      Helen Adams Keller's book is deeply moving.
      Attending the memorial service was a moving experience.
      Talking movingly to her upon departure, Joey told her that he would return in 200 years.
      Our company is constantly improving the system, making it a moving target.
      A moving force or spirit is someone who makes something happen.
      She was the moving force behind the founding of the union.
      He was the moving force behind the new arts program.
      =
      Chris`tian
      'kristʃən
      n[C] sb who follows the teachings of Jesus Christ
      adj related to Christianity ¶ behaving in a good, kind way
      -
      Why did Christians kill Native Americans?
      Did Christians really kill Indians with smallpox blankets?
      Some people refer to their first names as their Christian names.
      Compassion, a leading Christian charity, releases children in need from poverty and offers the hope of Jesus Christ.
      =
      jack
      dʒæk
      n[C] a device for lifting a heavy object off the ground ¶ a type of electrical plug that fits into a socket with one hole ¶ a playing card whose value is between a ten and a queen
      phrv ~ up - raise sth off the ground ¶ ~ around - waste sb's time by deliberately making things difficult for them
      -
      You need a car jack to change a wheel.
      The problem isn't your headphones, or that the player has stopped, but simply the solder (a mixture of lead and tin) on the jack has broken inside the case.
      The Jack of Spades is a mystery film.
      I don't know jack shit (anything at all) about poker.
      The Union Jack is the national flag of the United Kingdom. It consists of a blue background with red and white crosses on it.
      A jack-in-office is a self-important official.
      A jack-in-the-box is a toy in the form of a box with a figure inside that springs up when the lid is opened.
      A jack-o-lantern is a pumpkin with holes cut in it so that it looks like a face, used as a lantern by placing a candle inside for fun.
      A jack of all trades is a person who can do many different kinds of work but not necessarily well.
      =
      sen`ate
      'senit
      n[C] the more senior part of the U.S. Congress ¶ a similar part of the government in many US states ¶ the highest level of government in ancient Rome ¶ a group that governs some universities
      -
      The Senate was expected to pass the bill shortly.
      The Senate approved the bill.
      In commemoration of the 150th anniversary of the Civil War, a continuing series of online features explores the Senate's wartime experience.
      These distinguished individuals have enriched the history of the Senate, but the role of women in Senate history is not limited to those who have served in elective office.
      =
      ma`jor`i`ty
      mə'dʒɔriti
      n[sCU] most people or things ¶ the number of votes by which a person or party wins an election ¶ legal age of full adulthood
      -
      English speakers form the majority of the population.
      In this country, Muslims are in the majority.
      The majority of our employees have university degrees.
      Young women are in the majority in the fashion industry.
      If there is a large group in society that holds strong, conservative opinions on matters of morality and religion, you can refer to these people as the moral majority.
      If you believe that, in society or in a particular group, the opinions of most people are very different from the opinions that are most often heard in public, you can refer to these people as the silent majority.
      The board usually takes decisions by majority vote.
      She was opposed by another candidate; she won by a majority of 1, with 10 votes against 9.
      She failed to win the requisite two-thirds majority.
      The age of majority is eighteen.
      She'll reach her majority next month.
      She will inherit her father's empire when she reaches her majority.
      She will hold a majority shareholding in the company.
      =
      mis`sion
      'miʃən
      n[C] an important official job that involves travelling somewhere ¶ a group of people doing such a job ¶ military operation ¶ duty ¶ purpose, aim, goal ¶ the work of teaching people about Christianity, esp in a foreign country
      -
      Mission to Mars is a science fiction film.
      The US is sending a trade mission to China.
      The UN peacekeeping mission has arrived in the capital.
      The captain instructed them to abort the mission.
      Mission accomplished.
      He was sent on over 20 missions before being killed in action.
      You can tell by the determined way he talks that he is a man with a mission.
      The mission of an organization is the purpose or the most important aim of it.
      A company's or organization's mission statement is a document which states what they aim to achieve and the kind of service they intend to provide.
      The mission of International House is to enable students of different cultures to live together and build life-long friendships.
      =
      de`sire
      di'zaiə
      n[UC] a strong hope or wish ¶ a strong wish to have sex with sb
      v[T] want sth very much ¶ want to have sex with sb
      -
      She seemed to have lost her desire for life.
      She remarried and desired a child with her new husband.
      She desires his young, strong body.
      I desire and require - health and happiness.
      I had little desire for wealth.
      =
      jour`nal
      'dʒə:nl
      n[C] a serious magazine/newspaper ¶ a written record ¶ diary
      -
      The Architects' Journal is a weekly architectural magazine published in London. The first edition was produced in 1896.
      The Wall Street Journal is an American English-language international daily newspaper with a special emphasis on business and economic news.
      He kept a travel journal during his trip to South America.
      World Journal is a daily Chinese language newspaper serving overseas Chinese in North America.
      =
      grad`u`ate
      'grædʒuit
      n[C] sb who has finished their studies at a high school, college, or university
      v[I] complete your studies at a school and get a diploma or a degree
      v[T] give sb a diploma or degree
      v[I] ~ (from sth) to sth - make progress or reach a higher position
      adj postgraduate
      -
      Chris graduated from Cambridge with a degree in law. He is a law graduate.
      Joey graduated from high school last year.
      In the US, a graduate student is a student with a first degree from a university who is studying or doing research at a more advanced level. In Britain, use postgraduate.
      A graduate school is a department in a university or college where postgraduate students are taught.
      My son has just graduated from a tricycle to a proper bicycle.
      Amy Bigboobson graduated from being a secretary to running her own department.
      =
      frank
      fræŋk
      adj showing thoughts and feelings openly, honest and direct in speech
      n[C] a type of small smoked sausage
      v[T] put a mark or a stamp on a letter etc
      -
      The magazine, which gives frank advice about sex and romance, isn't aimed at the teenage market.
      Emily surveyed Susan from top to toe in a disarmingly frank way.
      She was completely frank with her about her appearance.
      To be frank with you, I think it's a bad idea.
      She was brutally frank in her assessment of our idea.
      She was quite frank about the whole thing.
      The letter was franked in Paris on August 3.
      Frank Anne is a German Jewish diarist who fled from Nazi Germany to Amsterdam with her family (1933) and kept a diary during her years in hiding (1942-1944).
      She and her family were captured and sent to concentration camps. Anne died in the camp. Her diary was published in 1947.
      =
      fin`ished
      'finiʃt
      adj done ¶ fully and properly made or completed ¶ no longer powerful, effective or able to continue
      -
      Are you finished with my tools yet?
      I won't be finished for another hour.
      It'll take a long time to do, but the finished product will be worth it.
      Please place them in the box when you've finished.
      Japanese businesses are good at importing raw materials and exporting finished products to countries all over the world.
      If the bank refuses to increase his loan, he's finished.
      Everything will be finished between her and him.
      =
      var`i`a`ble
      'veəriəbəl
      adj likely to change often ¶ able to be changed
      n[C] a situation, number or quantity that can vary or be varied
      -
      Interest rates can be highly variable.
      The heater has variable temperature settings.
      The quality of potato is often less variable than milk.
      With so many variables, the exact cost is difficult to estimate.
      The variables in the equation are X, Y and Z.
      =
      be`coming
      bi'kʌmiŋ
      adj making you look attractive ¶ appropriate and proper
      -
      Your short hairstyle is very becoming!
      'Thanks.' She received the praise with becoming modesty.
      If two things go together, they seem good, natural, or attractive in combination with each other.
      Words or actions that are becoming are suitable for you or for the situation you are in. (Compare appropriate and proper)
      It was not very becoming behavior for a teacher.
      =
      cath`o`lic
      'kæθəlik
      adj including a wide variety of different things ¶ related to the Roman ~ Church
      n[C] a member of the ~ Church
      -
      The ostentatious furnishings reflect the catholic tastes of its owner, Cecil Charlton.
      The Catholic Church is the branch of the Christian Church that accepts the Pope as its leader and is based in the Vatican in Rome.
      There are more than 10,000 canonized Roman Catholic saints.
      At least nine out of ten Mexicans are baptized Catholics.
      "Father" is the title of a priest, especially in the Roman Catholic Church and the Orthodox Church.
      My character's Catholic and he falls in love with this Jewish girl. We've run away together to get caught in this big rainstorm. So we go into this barn and undress each other and hold each other. It's really sweet and tender.
      =
      wound
      wu:nd waund
      v[T] injure sb with a knife, gun etc ¶ hurt sb's feelings
      the past tense and past participle of wind
      n[C] injury, mental or emotional pain
      -
      She was fatally wounded in a car crash.
      Five people were killed and many others were seriously wounded in the attack.
      He was deeply wounded by the treachery of close aides.
      She refuses to talk about the incident, saying it would only reopen old wounds.
      A nurse cleaned and bandaged the wound.
      It'll be several months for the wounds to heal.
      A flesh wound is a wound that breaks the skin but does not damage the bones or any of the body's important internal organs.
      A stab wound is a wound that someone has when they have been stabbed with a knife.
      =
      con`ser`va`tive
      kən'sə:vətiv
      adj not liking changes or new ideas ¶ traditional and without decoration ¶ lower than what is probably the real amount or number
      also a noun
      -
      A Conservative politician or voter is a member of or votes for the Conservative Party in Britain.
      Someone who is conservative has right-wing views.
      The new judge is 50-year-old David Suitor who's regarded as a conservative.
      Someone who is conservative or has conservative ideas is unwilling to accept changes and new ideas.
      If someone dresses in a conservative way, their clothes are conventional in style.
      Rachel is wearing a dark conservative pantsuit.
      A conservative estimate or guess is a guess which is deliberately lower than what the real amount probably is.
      =
      plan`et
      'plænit
      n[C] a large, round object in space that moves around a star
      -
      How many planets orbit the sun?
      The planets of our solar system are Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune.
      A planetarium is a building with a dome where lights are shone on the ceiling to represent the planets and the stars and to show how they appear to move.
      Planet Earth is a 2006 television series produced by the BBC Natural History Unit. Five years in the making, it was the most expensive nature documentary series ever commissioned by the BBC.
      =
      $